Positive things to say to your child

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Came across this article by Daniel Wong, thought it is good to share. Daniel provides in a concise list not 10 nor 15, but 50 positive things to say to your child. If you run out of words to say, this list may help. Let's start with some of our personal likes. For the full list, please refer to his website.

1.  “I love you.”

2. “What do you think?”

3. “I enjoy spending time with you.”

4. “All of us make mistakes.”

5. “You’re special to me.”

6. “I appreciate it when you . . .”

7. “I trust you.”

8. “You’re getting better at . . .”

9. “Have a good day!”

10. “Let me think about it.”

11. “What happened here?”

12. “It looks like you’re having a difficult time. Can you tell me about it?”

13. “I’m sorry.”

14. “Your practice is paying off.”

15. “How did you do that?”

16. “What’s one interesting thing that happened in school today?”

17. “What did you try hard at today?”

18. “I’m sure you can do it.”

19. “You decide.”

20. “How do you feel about that?”

21. “I’m ready to listen.”

22. “You were right.”

23. “I believe in you.”

24. “I saw that you tried hard at . . .” 

26. “I can see that you’re becoming more . . .”

27. “I’m excited about doing this with you!”

28. “That’s a good question.”

29. “Let’s do it your way.”

30. Can you explain to me why you did it this way?”

31.  “That was thoughtful of you.”

32. “Can you teach me how to . . .?”

33. “How did you think of that?”

34. “I knew you could do it.”

35. “You’re learning how to . . .”

Too busy for baby? Check out this gadget helper! [Review]

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Ever grumbled about how busy with housework that you have no time for your precious baby? To those mums who have helper, you are fortunate; for those who don't, you may need help to free up time for your kids or baby.
 
To start with, buy a "helper" who can vacuum and mop your floors. Personally, I find this iLife Robot V5S Pro very helpful. It comes with vacuum and mop function. The most wonderful thing is that it is very quiet, which means you can use it even while your baby is napping. It is unlike that of iRobot, which produces noise that can be deafening!

An iLife V5S pro on Lazada costs a quarter of what I paid for iRobot. I had thought that it would be much inferior compared to iRobot for the price tag, but to my surprise I find it much better than iRobot!

Firstly, iLife V5S pro not only vacuums but does mopping as well and it is much quieter compared to irobot. It comes with two spinning brushes at the bottom instead of one in iRobot, and cleans up dust more effectively. The only con is that it does not come with a handle to be carried around with one hand, other than that, whatever feature you find in iRobot, you can find it in ilife V5S pro!

It doesn't fall off the stairs it has sensors at the bottom to detect the high gap and avoid the dropping. It has the spot cleaning function as well. Spot cleaning allows you to vacuum a particular area that is especially dusty. The iLife will go in circles until the spot is cleaned. It also has the edge cleaning function, which is lacking in iRobot. With its anti-collision system, it doesn't bang hard onto walls and furniture too.
 
Check it out:


Naming your baby in Chinese

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Many parents nowadays resort to Fengshui Master to provide names for their babies based on their birth time and date, etc. I realised that Fengshui master often suggest names that comprises ancient "surnames" (姓) , some characters of which, are difficult to read, and some already non-existent. So, as parents, please do your part in researching through the characters suggested by the Fengshui Master before deciding on the name. Some points to note when choosing Chinese names:

1. Make sure character is "readable"
2. Check the tone of how the character is read. Some Chinese characters have a few tones and different meanings attached to different tones. Use a reliable Chinese dictionary to check (preferably physical hard copy dictionary versus online dictionaries which are not as reliable and comprehensive).
3. If you really have to choose a "rare" character that people are unsure of how to read, perhaps it might help if you include the Pinyin name when you regsiter for your baby's birth cert.

Hope this helps.

Foreign object in nose

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At three years plus or even four plus, children are getting more and more inquisitive and curious. So do not be surprise when you spot something alien fly out from your child's nose when he sneezes! Kids at age of 3 and 4 are capable of putting foreign objects in their noses simply out of curiosity. So do check if there are broken or loose parts in their collection of toys.

Potential objects placed in the nose may include food, seeds, dried beans, small toys (such as marbles), crayon pieces, erasers, paper wads, cotton, and beads. A foreign body in a child's nose can be there for awhile without arousing the parents' attention. The object may only be discovered when visiting a doctor to find the cause of irritation, bleeding, infection, or difficulty breathing.

Below are some information on the symptoms and first aid advise from MedlinePlus, if something gets into the nose.


Symptoms
  • Feeling of something in the nose
  • Irritability, particularly in infants
  • Irritation or pain in the nose
First Aid
  • DO NOT search the nose with cotton swabs or other tools. This may push the object further into the nose.
  • DO NOT use tweezers or other tools to remove an object that is stuck deep inside the nose.
  • DO NOT try to remove an object that you cannot see or one that is not easy to grasp. This can push the object farther in or cause damage.
  • Have the person breathe through the mouth. The person should not breathe in sharply. This may force the object in further.
  • Gently press and close the nostril that does NOT have the object in it. Ask the person to blow gently. This may help push the object out.  Avoid blowing the nose too hard or repeatedly.
  • If this method fails, get medical help.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
  • The person cannot breathe well
  • Bleeding occurs and continues for more than 2 or 3 minutes after you remove the foreign object, despite placing gentle pressure on the nose
  • An object is stuck in both nostrils
  • You cannot easily remove a foreign object from the person's nose
  • You think an infection has developed in the nostril where the object is stuck
Source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000037.htm

Puberty and periods

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Some short but important notes about girls' menstruation:

Menstruation (a period) is a major stage of puberty in girls, signalling that a girl is turning into a woman. When girls begin to go through puberty (usually starting between the ages of 8 and 13), their bodies and minds change in many ways. The hormones in their bodies stimulate new physical development, such as growth and breast development. About 2 to 2½ years after a girl's breasts begin to develop, she usually gets her first menstrual period.

About 6 months or so before getting her first period, a girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for a girl to worry about discharge unless it has a strong odour or causes itchiness.

Some girls may start menstruating as early as age 10, but others may not get their first period until they are 15 years old. Irregular periods are common in girls who are just beginning to menstruate. It may take the body a while to sort out all the changes going on, usually, after a year or two, the menstrual cycle will become more regular. Some women continue to have irregular periods into adulthood, though.

Some girls may notice physical or emotional changes around the time of their periods. Once girls start to menstruate, for the next two years, they usually grow about 1 to 2 more inches, reaching their final adult height by about age 14 or 15 years (younger or older depending on when puberty began). There are usually not large growth spurts once the period starts.


Sources:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/growth/growth_13_to_18.html
http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/girls/menstruation.html#

To LEGOLAND Malaysia and Back [Review]

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Following is a Review Post on LEGOLAND Malaysia by fellow mummy blogger, Jane.


For the first time, we self-drove into Johor Bahru, and made our way into LEGOLAND Malaysia!

We were contemplating on whether to self drive or go by coach, which could save all the hassle in finding our way and all the insecurities, after having heard so many stories about cars being hijacked, dangerous driving on the roads, etc. etc. Well, in the end, for the sake of convenience, we decided on self-drive, with my sister's car leading the way, that is.

Booking the tickets

Booking the LEGOLAND tickets was a breeze. We did it online via the LEGOLAND Malaysia Hotel website. All you need was a credit card to guarantee the booking.

We booked two hotel rooms (Kingdom themed) for on night and tickets to the theme parks (Water park and LEGOLAND theme park) for 2 days as a combo package. The tickets to the theme parks could be collected at the Front Office earlier in the morning when you do the pre-check-in at the hotel. Just remember to bring your confirmation letter.

Driving to LEGOLAND Malaysia
Despite having told that it was a short and easy drive to LEGOLAND, and with the convoy of my sister and her family, a lot of research has been done prior to driving on our part. The husband studied the Google maps intensely, even down to the terrains and stuff like that. We borrowed the "Touch and Go" card for fast entry, we got a steering wheel lock, and other equipment for the car in case it broke down on the road... we even checked with friends and relatives on the step by step procedures at the customs... Well, anyway, we thought that going to LEGOLAND Malaysia via Tuas Second Link was the most straight forward. After going through the customs, all you need was to drive until you see the Nusajaya Exit 312. Next, you will see LEGOLAND Malaysia signage and we followed the signs (or rather my sister's car) all the way... hee.

Checking-in to LEGOLAND Malaysia Hotel

The official check-in time for LEGOLAND Malaysia Hotel was 4pm! Yes, I heard lots of grumblings... and to make things worse, the check-out time was 10am the following day! (more cursings..) Well, I heard of stories of how some lucky people got to check in as early as 10+am. We weren't that lucky but we were told that once the rooms were ready, the hotel staff would give us a call. And they really did! We got one of our rooms at 2pm after we had eaten our lunch at Medini Mall right opposite the Hotel. So we went straight to deposit all our belongings in the hotel room, got changed into our swim wear and flew right to the Water Park!
 LEGOLAND Malaysia Hotel
The kids were exhilarated once they stepped into the hotel lobby! There were many stations and pits with Lego bricks for the kids to build their masterpieces. There was also an interactive XBOX Kinect machine for kids to dance crazy. Even within the elevator itself there was DISCO! Almost every display in LEGOLAND Hotel were made from Lego bricks!
At the LEGOLAND Hotel, every single room is themed. Each floor of the hotel has a different theme: Adventure, Kingdom, and Pirate. We had the Kingdom Themed room which was equipped with a separate sleep area for children with bunk beds and a trundle bed to accommodate up to three children, plus a king-sized bed for parents. The two areas were separated by a sliding door. It was thoughtful for the hotel to even equip every room with two sinks - one for adult and the other lower one for kids to reach!
The rooms were fancifully decorated with Lego bricks and stuff, of course. Another fun thing that got the kids high in the Kingdom room was that they got to embark on a Treasure Hunt in their own room. There was a Frog Prince Treasure safe box waiting to be unlocked. In order to unlock the safe, they will have to look for clues in the room by answering 4 questions. Much to the delight of the kids, they uncovered two small packs of Lego creator, which they opened and fixed immediately.

 LEGOLAND Malaysia Water Park
The weather was kind on us. It wasn't hot. In fact, dark clouds hovered in the skies but it didn't rain. We were blessed. There were cabanas for rental around the water park. But it was too expensive (RM300 for full day rental and RM150 for half day rental starting from 2pm). We didn't have to rent anyway since we didn't bring any cash (err... remember to bring RM10 if you have a baby child under 2 years of age for some swim diaper before you can be admitted) or important documents, just our towels and bottles, which we left under the big shades and lounge chairs. We had a whale of time at the Water Park until 5pm. The park closed at 6pm. Please visit the water park website for more information and FAQs. If you have read the FAQs in detail, you'd find out that there's no re-entry to the park unless you are an annual ticket holder. But, no, that was only in FAQs, in reality, the kind souls there allowed multiple entries as long as you showed them your tickets. So no worries if you need to step out of the park for meals, etc.

 LEGOLAND Theme Park
The day was hot. Nevertheless, we were well prepared with our sunglasses, hats, umbrellas and sun lotion. We stepped into the park only at 11am. We had checked out from the hotel by then. At the theme park, the kids went for the driving school car drive, train ride, playground, and we managed to get a quick glimpse of the Miniland before heading for lunch at the cafe in the park. Thereafter, we proceed back home! The anxious husband said that there might be jams at the customs unless we leave before 4pm. So at around 3pm, we left the park, leaving half of the park unfinished!!! What a waste. Sigh! So we didn't get to enjoy all rides... in fact we only complete 25 per cent of the park.

 Overall, the trip to LEGOLAND Malaysia was fun despite not having played the entire LEGOLAND theme park. We might visit LEGOLAND Malaysia again for the purpose of completing the theme park. After hearing stories of kids being kidnapped at LEGOLAND Malaysia, we made it a point to hold their hands every second! And for cars being hijacked, we were told to park the cars head in. With these safety measures in place, we had successfully gone to LEGOLAND Malaysia and came BACK (in one piece)!
 

ADHD in Singapore

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental disorder of self-control. As the name suggests, the symptoms of ADHD are characterised by serious and persistent difficulty in three areas, namely:
  • Inattention
  • Impulsivity
  • Hyperactivity
It is quite normal for children to be active, inattentive and impulsive. However, children have difficulties in the above areas when these behaviours:
  • are severe and persistent
  • occur across more than one situation, for example, at home, school, the supermarket
  • impair their performance at school and their relationships with others
Children who exhibit such behaviours may be suffering from ADHD. Another name for this is hyperkinetic disorder. ADHD is related to abnormalities in brain functioning and development. It is also associated with other factors that can affect brain functioning or development, such as genetic factors, injuries, toxins and infections. 

Signs and Symptoms

Children with ADHD exhibit a variety of symptoms. Accordingly to diagnostic criteria, the symptoms must have started before the age of seven and be evident for at least six months.

With inattention, the child:

  • often fails to give close attention to details
  • often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
  • is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
  • is often forgetful in daily activities
  • often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  • makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities
  • often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores or duties
  • often has difficulty organising tasks and activities
  • often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort
  • often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (toys, school assignments, pencils or books)


With hyperactivity and impulsivity, the child:

  • often fidgets or squirms in the seat
  • often leaves his seat in the classroom or in other situations where remaining seated is expected
  • often runs about or climbs excessively in situations where it is inappropriate
  • often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
  • is often ‘on the go’ or often acts as if he is ‘driven by a motor’
  • often talks excessively
  • often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
  • often has difficulty waiting turns
  • often interrupts or intrudes on others

Treatment

There is no simple treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is most effective. This includes:
  • Medication
  • Medicine changes the brain chemistry so that the brain may function in a more orderly manner. As a child’s concentration improves and hyperactivity lessens, the child will find life more manageable and satisfying.

  • Help with behaviour management and organisation skillsParents can help children structure and organise their life. Having a routine is essential. Parents may make use of concrete reminders, such as lists, schedules and alarm clocks to help break down homework activities into small steps. Use of small, frequent and constantly repeated incentives and feedback increase children’s awareness of what they are doing. Positive results are encouraged in this way.

  • Training parents to elicit desired behaviourTraining parents helps them to elicit the desired behaviour they want in their children. As children with ADHD often feel they can do nothing right or well, helping children experience success by discovering what they are good at will foster their confidence and competence.

Where to Get Help for ADHD Diagnosis, Treatment and Support

 
(A) Subsidised Venues for Diagnosis & Treatment of ADHD/ADD (For Children)
 
Child Guidance Clinic (CGC)
Health Promotion Board Building
3 Second Hospital Ave #03-01
Singapore 168937
Tel: 6435-3878/9

The main government clinic in Singapore under the Institute of Mental Health that assesses and treats behavioural and developmental disorders in children and adolescents up to the age of 18 years. Students can pay a subsidized fee if there is a referral letter from school or polyclinic (Long queue expected)
                 
Child Development Unit (KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital)
Specialist Clinic M
Podium I, Children’s Tower
100 Bukit Timah Road
Singapore 229899
Tel: 6394 2211
Students can pay a subsidized fee if there is a referral letter from school or polyclinic
(Long queue expected)
 
The Children's Specialist Clinic (National University Hospital)
Clinic 'A'
Main Building Level 1
National University Hospital
5 Lower Kent Ridge Road
Singapore 119074
Tel: 6772 5502
 
James Cook University Psychology Clinic
JCU Singapore Psychology Clinic
JCU Singapore Campus Block D
600 Upper Thomson Road
Singapore 574421

Email: psychologyclinic@jcu.edu.sg
Website: www.jcu.edu.sg/Clinic_Intro.htm

This is a University Clinic where ADHD children and adults can get diagnosis and medical treatment. Low cost of $20 per consultation session (diagnosis tests will cost more). As this is a training clinic, patients are seen by psychiatric students under training.

(B) Support & Service Organisations
 
Student Care Services (SCS) – Educational Psychology Services (EPS)
The EPS serves students aged 5 to 18 years coming from families with less than $2000 monthly income. The EPS provides diagnostic and intervention programmes for students with learning difficulties, special behavioural / emotional / developmental issues, and special needs eg autism, dyslexia, attention deficit. They also provide support services for parents.

There are 3 centres:

SCS Clementi Centre

Blk 437 Clementi Ave 3 #01-98
Singapore 120437
Tel: 6778 6867
 
SCS Hougang Centre
Blk 463 Hougang Ave 10 #01-964
Singapore 530463
Tel: 6286 9905

SCS Yishun Centre
Blk 202 Yishun St 21 #01-89
Singapore 760202
Tel: 6759 6821

Email: epsenquiries@students.org.sg
Website: www.students.org.sg

Care Corner Educational Therapy Services (ETS) - Mr. Isaac Tan

Offers specialized services for children with special learning needs which covers ADHD, attention difficulties, dyslexia, reading difficulties, writing difficulties and slow learning.
Serves children from 5 to 13 years old. Services include consultation, specialist tuition and intervention programs to improve learning abilities conducted at its centre in Toa Payoh and at six primary schools. Subsidies are available to families needing financial assistance.

Care Corner Educational Therapy Service
Blk 149 Toa Payoh Lorong 1 #01-963
Singapore 310149
Tel: 6259 8683
Email: ets@carecorner.org.sg
Website: www.carecorner.org.sg/ets.html
Learning To Learn Centres (Kampung Senang Charity and Education Foundation)

The Learning To Learn Centre is run by Kampung Senang Charity and Education Foundation. The Centre helps children with learning challenges, including ADHD, Autism Spectrum, Dyslexia, developmental delays and children who do not respond well to traditional teaching methods, at affordable and subsidized rates.

They run 2 Centres :
 
Kovan MRT Centre
Blk 221 Hougang St 21 #01-90
Singapore 530221
Tel: 6487 3430 (Mr. Ong Chee Seng)
 
Tampines Centre
Blk 840 Tampines St 82 #01-113
Singapore 520840
Tel: 6788 2568
(C) Support Groups
 
Society for the Promotion of ADHD Research and Knowledge (SPARK)
1008 Toa Payoh North, #03-08
Singapore 318996
Email: Spark_Singapore@yahoogroups.com
Website: www.spark.org.sg

SPARK is an independent, voluntary welfare organization which promotes ADHD awareness and runs a support group for parents who have children with ADHD / ADD.
 
SPARK holds monthly Parent Support Group meetings and talks relating to ADHD, treatment methods and coping strategies. They are held on the first Saturday of every month, from 9am–12noon at the Child Guidance Clinic, 3rd floor of the Health Promotion Board Building, 3 Second Hospital Ave, Singapore 168937. 
 
ADHD Singapore Mailing Group
This is a mailing group which offers a forum for people to connect with others in the group to ask questions on ADD / ADHD related issues and to share learning. To join the mailing group, just send an empty email to:

Email: ADHD_Singapore-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
Website: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ADHD_Singapore/

                   

Sources:
http://www.imh.com.sg/clinical/page.aspx?id=249
http://www.spark.org.sg/help.html

Does your child have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

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Does your child have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviours (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or is overly active? If he does, does that mean he is suffering from ADHD?

Unfortunately, above characteristics are symptoms of ADHD. And that makes almost the entire population of children being classified as sufferers of ADHD at one point or another. An article published by the British Medical Journal, claims that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is being overdiagnosed. The writers argue that the definition of ADHD in doctors’ guidelines has broadened in recent years and this has contributed to a steep rise in diagnosis of and drug prescriptions for the disorder, which is unnecessary and possibly harmful for some individuals. The authors call for a more cautious diagnostic approach to help reduce the risk of overdiagnosis. This move is certainly welcomed. Well, before any changes is made to the diagnostic approach, let's take a look at what ADHD is and how a child is currently diagnosed.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity). Although ADHD can't be cured, it can be successfully managed and some symptoms may improve as the child ages.

ADHD has three subtypes:
  • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
    • Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories.
    • Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.
  • Predominantly inattentive
    • The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.
    • Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD.
  • Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
    • Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present.
    • Most children have the combined type of ADHD.

Causes

Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD.

Genes.
Results from several international studies of twins show that ADHD often runs in families. Researchers are looking at several genes that may make people more likely to develop the disorder. Knowing the genes involved may one day help researchers prevent the disorder before symptoms develop. Learning about specific genes could also lead to better treatments.
Children with ADHD who carry a particular version of a certain gene have thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention. This NIMH research showed that the difference was not permanent, however, and as children with this gene grew up, the brain developed to a normal level of thickness. Their ADHD symptoms also improved.

Environmental factors.
Studies suggest a potential link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and ADHD in children. In addition, preschoolers who are exposed to high levels of lead, which can sometimes be found in plumbing fixtures or paint in old buildings, may have a higher risk of developing ADHD.

Brain injuries.
Children who have suffered a brain injury may show some behaviors similar to those of ADHD. However, only a small percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury.

Sugar.
The idea that refined sugar causes ADHD or makes symptoms worse is popular, but more research discounts this theory than supports it.

Food additives.
Recent British research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food additives like artificial colors or preservatives, and an increase in activity. Research is under way to confirm the findings and to learn more about how food additives may affect hyperactivity.

Signs & Symptoms

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:
  • Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  • Have difficulty focusing on one thing
  • Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
  • Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
  • Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
  • Not seem to listen when spoken to
  • Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
  • Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  • Struggle to follow instructions.
Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:
  • Fidget and squirm in their seats
  • Talk nonstop
  • Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
  • Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
  • Be constantly in motion
  • Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.
Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:
  • Be very impatient
  • Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
  • Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
  • Often interrupt conversations or others' activities.

Who Is At Risk?

ADHD is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and into adulthood. The average age of onset is 7 years old.

Diagnosis

Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels. Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to concentrate at one time or another. Sometimes, these normal factors may be mistaken for ADHD. ADHD symptoms usually appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6, and because symptoms vary from person to person, the disorder can be hard to diagnose. Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems constantly "out of control." Often, teachers notice the symptoms first, when a child has trouble following rules, or frequently "spaces out" in the classroom or on the playground.
No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk with the child's pediatrician. Some pediatricians can assess the child themselves, but many will refer the family to a mental health specialist with experience in childhood mental disorders such as ADHD. The pediatrician or mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD.
Between them, the referring pediatrician and specialist will determine if a child:
  • Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions
  • Has a middle ear infection that is causing hearing problems
  • Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
  • Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
  • Has any learning disabilities
  • Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptoms
  • Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent's job loss.
A specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child's home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child's parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted.
The specialist also will ask:
  • Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child's life?
  • Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child's peers?
  • Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
  • Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?
The specialist pays close attention to the child's behavior during different situations. Some situations are highly structured, some have less structure. Others would require the child to keep paying attention. Most children with ADHD are better able to control their behaviors in situations where they are getting individual attention and when they are free to focus on enjoyable activities. These types of situations are less important in the assessment. A child also may be evaluated to see how he or she acts in social situations, and may be given tests of intellectual ability and academic achievement to see if he or she has a learning disability.

Finally, if after gathering all this information the child meets the criteria for ADHD, he or she will be diagnosed with the disorder.

Some children with ADHD also have other illnesses or conditions. For example, they may have one or more of the following:
  • A learning disability. A child in preschool with a learning disability may have difficulty understanding certain sounds or words or have problems expressing himself or herself in words. A school-aged child may struggle with reading, spelling, writing, and math.
  • Oppositional defiant disorder. Kids with this condition, in which a child is overly stubborn or rebellious, often argue with adults and refuse to obey rules.
  • Conduct disorder. This condition includes behaviors in which the child may lie, steal, fight, or bully others. He or she may destroy property, break into homes, or carry or use weapons. These children or teens are also at a higher risk of using illegal substances. Kids with conduct disorder are at risk of getting into trouble at school or with the police.
  • Anxiety and depression. Treating ADHD may help to decrease anxiety or some forms of depression.
  • Bipolar disorder. Some children with ADHD may also have this condition in which extreme mood swings go from mania (an extremely high elevated mood) to depression in short periods of time.
  • Tourette syndrome. Very few children have this brain disorder, but among those who do, many also have ADHD. Some people with Tourette syndrome have nervous tics and repetitive mannerisms, such as eye blinks, facial twitches, or grimacing. Others clear their throats, snort, or sniff frequently, or bark out words inappropriately. These behaviors can be controlled with medication.
ADHD also may coexist with a sleep disorder, bed-wetting, substance abuse, or other disorders or illnesses.

Recognizing ADHD symptoms and seeking help early will lead to better outcomes for both affected children and their families.

Sources:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ADHD/
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
http://www.nhs.uk/news/2013/11November/Pages/Experts-argue-that-ADHD-is-overdiagnosed.aspx

Auspicious Chinese Names For Horse Babies

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General Characteristics Of People Who Are Born In The Year Of The Horse
The horse has always been a well-liked animal since the ancient time. Swift, enduring, elegant and spirited are adjectives that have always been synonymous with the stallion. It has always been a trusted partner of the mankind primarily as a form of transportation and many a time going through the thick and thin with our ancestors in the battle field.

People who are born in the horse year love freedom. They are bold to express themselves and dare to pursue their dream. Such people are independent but they do enjoy social events. Nevertheless, they may appear to be aloof at times and this sometimes leads others to think that they are egoistic.
Having said that, those that belong to horse zodiac sign do enjoy better luck in terms of inter-people relationship. They are often met with helpful bosses and friends. If there is something that those born in the year of horse needs to be mindful of, it would be their desire to be unrestrained. This would ultimately have a repercussion on their relationship with their working partner or spouse since the level of commitment may dwindle over times.

When selecting the names for your baby, we should choose those Chinese characters that can accentuate the positive attributes of the horse because there is an affiliation and resonance of energy between the zodiac sign and the way the character was scripted and evolved from the Chinese oracle.

Does Your Baby Have A Better Head-Start In Life?
When we are born into this world, our surname has already been predetermined. Surname has a very heavy influence on the early part of our life. According to the principles of the Chinese Name Selection system, it governs our childhood luck, parents’ relationship with us, achievement in academic pursuit and upbringing. You can have 2 children born in the same year but bearing different surnames and this would give rise to different effect in terms of their destiny.
For instance, it would be preferable for horse babies to be born into families carrying surname like:
王、彭、陳、朱、張、熊、姜、龔、馮、許、丁、譚、 吳、黃、顏、蕭、蔡and etc.

It does not favour surnames such as:
徐、岳、孔、李、孫、郭、洪、汪、泰、江、沈、溫、潘、呂、高、鄭、翁、劉 and etc.

However, if it is found that the horse babies are born with surname that have conflicting energy, we will need to make sure that the 2nd and 3rd Chinese names are carefully calculated to harmonise the impact.

The second Chinese character or middle name represents one’s relationship with spouse, romance and rapport with peers and the last name has a direct impact on a person’s career, wealth and children luck.

The approach to selecting good names for your baby is a rigorous and holistic one because not only there is a need to ensure the names complement the baby’s destiny chart, individual Chinese character within the name must also contain the right strokes, right sound, right shape that ultimately create the right result for the child. It is quite common nowadays that many children and adults are seeking help from name experts to enhance or improve their study, romance, career luck and even one’s behaviour.

What Chinese Names Are Suitable For Babies Born In The Year Of Horse?
Let us first try to understand some of the intrinsic characteristics of the horse so that from there we select Chinese characters that are appropriate for them. In the study of Chinese metaphysics, horse belongs to the fire element and hence, it is in conflict with water element. Together with dragon, horse has always been regarded as noble and elegant. In terms of diet, horse does not eat meat as it only feeds on grass and grains. Horse loves to trot in the open green and it feels safe and secured under the shelter.

The following Chinese characters or radicals are some examples that are considered auspicious for people born in horse year:
  1. 艿、芊、芙、芝、芩、芬、芮、芳、芷、苑、苓、茵、茹、莉、華、菁、萱、科、秦、秀、谷、豐、艷
    (Good to see radicals like「艸」「禾」「豆」because horse is herbivorous and this implies the horse is well fed which will lead to a stronger and healthier body)
  2. 純、素、紳、紫、緯、維、緹、繆、衫、衿、袁、裕、彤、采、彥、彩、彬、彪(Good to see「糸」「衣」「彡」「采」「亠」「爫」radicals as this implies only elite and outstanding horses are dressed up. This also implies the horse earns its respect from others and will lead to an increase in status as well.)
  3. 木、杉、彬、琳、杞、榮、林、柄、霖、柔、杰、棟、森、楊、楚、村、松、樺 (Good to see「木」radical because horses belong to the forest and they love to gallop and wander in it. This increases the adaptability and enhances the horse’s efficiency.)
  4. 守、安、宋、宗、宜、定、宥、家、宸、容、榮、冠、莹 (Good to see「宀」、「冖」radicals because it means the horse is well rested and protected under a roof or cave.)
  5. 龍、攏、龐、辰、農、穠、寶、宸 (Good to see「龍」「辰」because in Chinese there is saying 龙马精神 which implies one will be enthusiastic, passionate, energetic and will achieve success in study and career.)
  6. 彪、寅、獻、成、茂、城、建、 莲、达、凯、南、美、群、進、 盛、 翔 (Good to see「寅」「戌」「巳」「午」「未」radicals because in the study of Chinese metaphysics, such words form a special resonance with horse zodiac and they have very positive and powerful influence on people born in the year of horse in terms of career, marriage, people’s luck, health, wealth and etc.)
On the contrary, below Chinese characters are considered inauspicious for people having horse zodiac sign:
  1. 畸、留、町、畫、勇、由、當、富、男、甸、界、單、畛、畢 (Not good to have「田、甫」radicals because only mediocre horses will be used to plough the field. This implies people have to sacrifice or tend to receive the short end of the stick in their dealings with people.)
  2. 晶,喬、單、嘉、品、呂、器、嚴、哥、喜、煦、吉, 昌 (Not good to have more than one「日」or「口」radicals in the name because two 口form the Chinese word 骂 or “Scold” in English. People born in the year of Horse who have such combination in the Chinese name tend to easily be involved in disputes, attract petty people, say the wrong things and make enemies.)
  3. 冰、汪、泉、深、永、津、洲、海、涵、淑、凌、子、孝、季 (Not good to have「水」or「子」radicals because horse belongs to fire element and it is in conflict with water element)
  4. 恆、悠、慈、思、心、志、忠、念、怡、恬、恩、惠、意、愛、愉、慧、育 (Not good to have「心、月、忄」radicals because horse does not eat meat and such words contain elements of heart which is part of our body. In reality, people having such radical especially at the last character of the name often run into money problem. They always complain they are not able to grow their savings.)
  5. 山、岡、岳、岷、峻、崇、峰、崢、嵩、崑、崎、岱 (Not good to have「山」radical because for a horse to run on mountain road it is an uphill task. This implies one has to put in a lot of effort in their endeavours but it does not guarantee a favourable outcome. Not smooth-sailing.)
  6. 光、典、其、充、先、共、克、宏、雄、弘、公、俊、芸、 振、 提 (Not good to have「ㄙ」「手」「ㄦ」 in the name as such characters are very harmful to horse since it controls and restrains the movement of the horse, rendering it useless. It is also detrimental to the health of the horse. In real life, people found to have such characters are saddled with financial issues and they are not able to breakthrough and achieve what they want.)
The above information serves to give you some insights and new perspectives on Chinese Name Selection for Horse babies. It is best to seek professional advice if you are contemplating of picking auspicious names for your child to have a smooth-sailing path in future.

Source: http://thenewageparents.com/auspicious-chinese-names-for-horse-babies/

Milk supply: How much milk should I pump?

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Most breastfeeding mothers tend to worry about their milk supply. "How much milk did you pump in week 3?" Many would compare their supply with their friends and colleagues. They are constantly worrying if they are giving their babies enough milk. How much expressed milk will my baby need?

As a general rule, if the first month of exclusive breastfeeding is going well, your milk production dramatically increases from about 30 ml on Day 1 to a peak of about 900 ml per baby around Day 40.

In exclusively breastfed babies, milk intake increases quickly during the first few weeks of life, then stays about the same between one and six months. After six months, breastmilk intake will continue at this same level until — sometime after six months, depending in baby’s intake from other foods — baby’s milk intake begins to decrease gradually.

Research tells us that exclusively breastfed babies take in an average of 750 ml per day between the ages of 1 month and 6 months. Different babies take in different amounts of milk; a typical range of milk intakes is 570-900 ml per day.

We can use this information to estimate the average amount of milk baby will need at a feeding:
  • Estimate the number of times that baby nurses per day (24 hours).
  • Then divide 750 ml by the number of nursings.
  • This gives you a “ballpark” figure for the amount of expressed milk your exclusively breastfed baby will need at one feeding.


Sources:
http://kellymom.com/bf/pumpingmoms/pumping/milkcalc/
http://www.nancymohrbacher.com/blog/2012/11/27/how-much-milk-should-you-expect-to-pump.html
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/9241562110.pdf


 

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